SPI Protocol in detail

SPI Protocol(Serial Peripheral Interface) is an interface bus commonly used for communication with flash memory, sensors, real-time clocks (RTCs), analog-to-digital converters, and more.  The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI Protocol) bus was developed by Motorola to provide full-duplex synchronous serial communication between master and slave devices. SPI connection involves a master connected to slaves using the

I2C Protocol

I2C was originally develop in 1982 by Philips for various Philips chips. The original specification allowed for only 100kHz communications, and provided only for 7-bit addresses, limiting the number of devices on the bus to 112 (there are several reserved addresses, which will never be used for valid I2C addresses). In 1992, the first public


Learn and implement RS232

           RS232 connector is a port used for data exchange between equipment. It was designed for data exchange between DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) or PC and DCE (Data Communication Equipment) or MODEM. The need for RS232 came from limitations raised by parallel data exchange. It uses a serial communication protocol where data exchange is done


Learn and Implement RS-485

What is RS-485? RS-485 is an industrial specification that defines the electrical interface and physical layer for point-to-point communication of electrical devices. The RS-485 standard allows for long cabling distances in electrically noisy environments and can support multiple devices on the same bus. When, Why, and Where to Use RS-485 ? RS-485 is use in

GSM Archetecture

Selection of GSM module

“Before building any embedded project based on GSM/GPRS technology first question that comes to our mind is which GSM and GPS module we should use among different vendors. Selection of GSM module depend on points given below.” If you are interested in implementing IoT projects below information may be quite useful for you. 1)Network selection: